By BYIRINGIRO EMILIEN, PhD
in African Anthropology
Once upon a time there was a hilly nation that extended from Masaka and bordered Bunyolo kingdom in Uganda, Mbale in northern Uganda and extended to Mt Luwenzori near Southern Sudan and went all the way to Bunia in northwestern DR Congo. It continued from Bunia all the way to Walikale in Maniema and stretched all the way to Kalimi in DRC reaching the mountains on Milenge and the plains of Uvira near the today's Burundi. This Hutu Bantu kingdom continued all the way to Kigoma, Mwanza, Kagera, and Bukoba in Tanzania then connected with Masaka in Uganda. All the people here spoke Kinyarwanda dilect a Bantu langauge widely spoken today by the people of Rwanda, Burundi, Bufumbira in Uganda, Banyamulenge (the Tutsi who moved into Eastern DRC 400 years ago), Banyankole (the Tutsis of Western Uganda), the people of Lutchuru, Ituli, and Masisi in Eastern DRC. Here I have to remind the readers that over the years languages change and form what is called dilects this is the case of the Kinyarwanda outside of Rwanda such as the Kifumbira and Kinyankole in Uganda, Kiha for Baha people in Tanzania, Kirundi of Burundian people, and Kimasisi and Kinyamulenge of the Banyamulnge and Bamasisi in Eastern DRC.
|THE MAP OF RWANDA
After introducing the Rwandan community to readers let me continue giving you the social, political, economic, and demographic background of the people of Rwanda within Rwanda and in diaspora. Around 800 to 1000 years ago Rwanda was nothing but a jungle. The thousand hills were covered by a dense forestry foliage soaked in the equatorial rain. The primary visitors of this land were the pygmy people locally known as Batwa people. They lived in DR Congo and were basically known for hunting and gathering. Their love for meat and honey took them into the hills of Rwanda. They lived peacefully and enjoyed their new land. Later when the desertification process continued pushing the people of North Africa downward coupled with the invasion of the Ottoman who were looting and killing mercilessly the Africans. These two events pushed the people of Africa toward equatorial jungle that is how Hutus found themselves in Rwanda not in millions but as a small kingdom were established which had been practicing technology and farming in North Africa and continued their culture in the new world called Rwanda. They were part of the Bantu tribes of Cameroon, Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR). Whereas other Bantu tribes continued their way further south and east of Africa such as Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, all the way to South Africa due to intercommunity conflicts over land and pastures, the Hutu Bantu people remained in the kingdom of Rwanda. They had their own monarchic leadership that was led by a Hutu king called Umuhinza. This time both Hutus and Twa people lived in harmony on this new land called Rwanda.
Few years later came another new tribe. It was from near River Nile in a country then was known as Sudan or Ethiopia. Here I have to remind readers that when the old books such as the Bible talks about Sudan and Ethiopia it refers to a huge of countries that were known then than it is known today. For example when the Bible talks about Ethiopia it refers to part of today’s Sudan, the whole of Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea, part of East northern Uganda, Northern and north western Eastern Kenya, and Somalia. When the bible refers to Sudan it means todays part of Western Sudan and Southern Sudan, Chad, Cameroon, CAR, part of DRC, and Niger. This tribe that came later to Rwanda called Tutsis they were from the Nile basins whereas Hutus were from the basins of Lake Chad and Mount Cameroon. They all made Rwanda their new home. However, when the Tutsis came to Rwanda they found Hutu kingdom well established and Twa people had been already incorporated into the system, especially in the army to protect the king because of their swiftness and understanding geography well which was so critical then in the world that had no compass but relied on messengers to connect one kingdom to its neighbors.
Normally by nature Bantu people are hospitable. They love welcoming visitors and helping humanity. This is known from their humanity philosophy of Ubuntu (I Am because You Are, therefore we both belong). This philosophy made Hutu kings welcome the nomadic Tutsis who had traveled from the Nile plains in search of fresh pastures. They had been fighting with other communities that they encountered in both Uganda and Sudan because of their arrogance that they wanted to rule over indigenous people. This is the same reasons they had left their homeland located between Blue Nile and the Nile in Sudan. However when they arrived in Rwanda they had changed their tactics of using forced to take over power from the indigenous people as we are going to have a look at it shortly. When they arrived in Rwanda the Hutu kings received them and allowed them to herd their cattle on the lands which had been cleared by Hutu people. Hutus were the minority therefore Tutsis had to adapt to new environment and abandoned their Nilotic languages in order to assimilate therefore adopting a new Bantu language. Despite the Hutu and Twa exceptional welcome given to Tutsis unaware of the consequences, Hutus built a cordial relationship with Tutsis whereas Tutsis continued scheming on how to overthrow the Hutu kingdom and rule over both Hutus and Twa. Here I have to remind the readers that Tutsis had left Southeastern Sudan due to their behaviors of power-mongering. They had fought almost with all the tribes that they came across. The consequences were catastrophic that is why by the time their reached Rwanda they were just a handful of people emaciated by a long journey. When the Hutus saw them they just saw human beings in need of assistance and a place to call home. The fore they accept to coexist with them and offered them any relief support needed to help them integrate into a new community. However, Tutsis were like a cold ash that covers a burning coal.
Looking at a well-structured Hutu kingdom Tutsis realized that it was going to be hard to fight and take over power in Rwanda. Therefore, they decided to be more strategic and take their time to shake the inner-core of the Hutu kingdom structure. This was to get to the heart of the succession process of the Hutu kingdom. Tutsis took time to learn and understand how Hutu kingdoms succeeded from one to another and understood well how the hierarchy of the monarchy. This included to learn and understand how the king executed his commands, the army, the composition of the kitchen cabinet, marriage, norms, and values, taboos, and rituals. After years of observation the Tutsis discovered that the Hutu Kingship was entirely based on marriage institution. If someone could manage to infiltrate this institution he could rule without engaging into a military strife. From now on they started strategizing how to achieve this through their Tutsi women. This Tutsi approach to getting what they want through their women has been transferred from one generation to another and proved very successful to this day as we are going to see it.
THE OVERTHROW OF THE HUTU KINGDOM AND 400 YEARS OF THE TUTSI RULE
UMUHINZA in plural ABAHINZA was the name given to a Hutu king before the coming of the Tutsi kings in Rwanda and Burundi. Usually Abahinza were born with extraordinary power. When they were born it is believed that they were chosen by God before He created them because they come out of their mothers' wombs holding different Rwandan traditional grains that were customary veneered by the Bantu people of Rwanda since they were part of their customs. These grains were Saga, Nyabutongo (Amaranth), Pumpkin seeds, Sorghum, Millet, and Isogo. Only one child in the entire kingdom was born with his hand fist holding these grain. Only Abiru could know the future king.
After a good 400 years of observation and strategizing, in 1300 AD Tutsis managed to overthrow the Hutu kingship in a cold blood but how did happen? After understanding that the Hutu kingship was solely anchored in marriage institution. The Hutu king was replaced by his son and the rule moves on but there was another secret of this Hutu rule. For a Hutu King to rule over his subjects he had to do it with the help of his mother (called the queen mother). This queen mother was an all-powerful woman who discharged her duty not only as the mother to the king but also as a woman who represent all women in the kingdom. She was a figure of the today's women empowerment and she influenced all important decisions in the country, but most importantly she was the key adviser to the king. Therefore, all national decisions were made with her consent. Another important thing in this discussion is that the Queen Mother was the key member of the kitchen cabinet which was entirely composed by the Abiru (the wise-men). The members of the wise-men in the Hutu kingdom were purely the biological brothers of the Queen Mother thus completing the supreme council of the royal powerful team. When Tutsis understood this stricture they knew very well that by infiltrating that kitchen cabinet would be enough to rule without any challenges. So what did they do to achieve this?
After they go to Rwanda Tutsis spent close to 400 years infiltrating the Hutu kingship. They exchanged gifts with the Hutu kings as a sign for loyalty and friendships. They even went far and started asking their women to go and sleep with those close to the kingship. According to the history, some Tutsis asked their wives and daughters to go and sleep with those in the circle of leadership including the so called wise men or Abiru. Tutsis understood that if one of the sons of the king falls in love with one of their girls it would help them reach their plans to rule Rwanda one day. They knew that once one of the king's sons in line of succession married one of their daughters it would be a ticket to ruling over Hutus one day. This is because a Hutu king was succeeded by his own son if he did not have one then he could be succeeded by his brother's son. After some years some of the Hutu kings' sons had intermarried with Tutsi women. However, I don’t call this an intermarriage because the statistics show that only 1/10000 of Tutsi men that marry to Hutu women. This is because Tutsis think that Hutu blood are not clean and are of subclass. However, Hutus don’t mind at all because they believe in love not in material things. It is the same with Bantu people all over the world. There is a myth that Tutsis don’t marry to Bantu people because they are not beautiful. That is a pure lie because majority of African people are Bantus and African women are the most gorgeous women you can ever find. Apart from that Bantu women are known to be wife material women, loyal, submissive, caring, and loving people.
When some of the Hutu kings' sons married to Tutsi women and succeeded their fathers they ruled with their wives as queens. These women were not only in power but also acted as intelligent of their own tribe. They collected and reported information to their relatives on regular basis. This ritual has been transferred from one generation to another to this day. That is what scrambled down the first Hutu kingdom and it is the same that ended the Hutu regime in 1994 and has worked throughout the region in Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, and DRC. It has also been used in western countries especially in USA and UK and has worked out perfectly. Going back to the Hutu kingdom of midi 1000 AD and its scramble it was because Hutu men married to Tutsi women who were not for love but for connections and networking purposes. They had a mission to strengthen their existence and access power through backdoor. When Hutu kings had Tutsi women as their wives now the Hutu kingdoms were slowly falling into the leadership of the minority Tutsis who like nor love anybody else but themselves. The Hutus apocalypse was drawing closer. Later the Tutsi scheme was realized smoothly. Here is how it all worked well for the Tutsis to take over power in Rwanda and later found Hutus becoming salves for Tutsis for the next 400 years since around 16th Century to the 20th Century.
When a Hutu king's son married to a Tutsi woman and yet he was the next successor of the kingdom it was a deal done for the Tutsis. A Hutu became a king then a Tutsi a queen. Later the king had children and one of this children was to be the next "Hutu" king. I have highlighted this because it is where all the ethnic conflict between Hutus and Tutsis began. When the Hutu king who had married to a Tutsi woman started having kids she was preparing to become a queen mother when the time comes. She also knew that her son will become a king and rule with his uncles who traditionally form a kitchen cabinet. Remember the head of the kitchen cabinet, according to the Hutu monarchy rules and regulations, is the Mother Queen who is, in this case the mother to the new king and the wife of the outgoing kind. At this level there is another story that will shed more light on the relationship between Hutus and Tutsis. A story of betrayal and love for power. A story that changed Rwandans forever. A story which is the beginning of the massacres of 1990s in Rwanda, 1996,1998 in DRC, and the rise of CNDP, MRC, FDLR, and M23 in 2012.
THE STORY OF BETRAYAL AND HATRED THAT ALWAYS BLOODY RWANDANS
When a Tutsi woman gets to the time of fertility and she is sure if she had sex she would become pregnant, there is this ritual that Tutsis do. The women always go back home when pregnant a spend around 3 months at their parents homes. Only Tutsis understand this ritual but those who know the history of Rwandans say that it started during the time when Tutsis were hatching a plan to overthrow the Hutu kingdom. Here I have to remind you that the story of overthrowing Hutu kingdom did not happen in one kingdom only. This is because since 1000 AD Hutus had expanded all over Rwanda and established different small kingdoms headed by Abahinza. Abahinza are the Hutu kings whereas the Tutsi kings are called Abami. When some of the Hutu Kings married to Tutsis women they had to rule with their wives. When the Hutu kings died then their Tutsi wives took over the leadership together with their sons and brothers who formed the Abiru council. This was the kitchen cabinet. This is very important to understand what is happening in Rwanda today. When the Hutu king died and left his wife to become the next Queen Mother in charge of the kingdom leadership. Tutsis knew well all this. They understood that if one of their daughters married to one of the Hutu kings' sons then she will one day become a Queen Mother in charge of the Hutu leadership. To effectively plan for this Tutsis had to introduce in their culture something that will make sure that the next in line of succession was going to be a pure Tutsis in the process they called cleansing process or in their today language "GUPFUBURA." What is Gupfubura? Usually Gupfubura is to redo something which had been done before in the wrong way. For example, when you cook food and they don’t cook well, in Kinyarwanda we call it "Gupfuba" meaning that has not been cooked well. To cook this food again so that it is well cooked the act is called "Gupfubura." The same process was used by Tutsis when they were scheming to overthrow the Hutu kingdom and enthrone a pure Tutsi blood over the leadership of Hutus without engaging in war.
Usually, unknowingly to Hutus who were asleep then, when the king's wife was ovulating she usually could speak with her parents so that they organize one of her cousins to come and sleep with her. Tutsis are among few people who sleep with their immediate cousins in the region. Then during this time a wife would pretend that she is pregnant and ask for the husband a permission to go back to her parents so that her mother could take care of her during her morning sickness. In most of the cases Tutsi women married to Hutus could fake this morning sickness so that they get to go back home to their mothers and sleep with their cousins. This is what happened during the process that Tutsis called Ugupfubura. This process was designed to make sure that the next Tutsi king will be a pure Tutsi but a Hutu in the eyes of Hutu populace who did not know what was going on. In this period of cleansing that is when a child was conceived who will be a future king. This is what happened when the last Hutu king died. He was succeeded by his so called son but was not his biological son. The king did not know that his heir son was not his true son. He died believing that his legitimate son was going to take over. However, Tutsis had planned this meticulously well. They planned when to poison the last Hutu king since one of their sons had matured enough to become the next heir of the throne. This is what happened. In one of the nights a king retired to bed but he never woke up. The next morning the nation was told that "Umwami tayanze" meaning the king is dead.
After the burial ceremonies and mourning the new Hutu king was enthroned. However, however the new king was only Hutu by ceremonial duties but biologically a pure Tutsi. His mother and uncles knew well that he is not a Hutu but one of their own. During this time now the coup had succeeded what remained was to organize a pure cleansing scheme that was to see the Tutsis take over the leadership without hiding behind the curtain. When the last Hutu king died he had left children of which no one of them belonged to him although they were brought up in a palace by the Hutu king. Now Tutsis were ready to embark on the next ultimate seizure of power. Now their son who had also known that he is a pure Tutsi and was ruling with his mother as the Queen mother and his uncles as his Abiru council Tutsis had already taken over all mantles of leadership. Abiru were the ones in charge of the kingdom now they were in the hands of Tutsis. The next move was to kill any prospect Hutu king that they heard of in any part of the country Rwanda. All Abahinza were murdered in called blood and their genital parts were hung on Kalinga Drum. The reasons for hanging genital parts of the Hutu leaders was to cause fear all over the country so that no any Hutu that will think of rebelling or questioning the new Tutsi leadership and the change of event. This kind of terror was to go on for the next 400 years under a system called Serfdom where all Hutus were to be seen as a second class in their own country and submit the his majesty the Tutsi king. All Tutsis were to be considered to be considered the nobles of the land and were to be served by any Hutu living on the land.
After taking over power Tutsis embarked on a mission of a pure cleansing. They killed any Hutu intellectuals that they deemed to be able to challenge them. All Hutus were to serve Tutsis all their lives by farming the land but paying to the king with the produce from their farms. The same scenario was repeated in 1994 when the Tutsis under Paul Kagame took over power by killing two Hutu presidents Habyarimana Juvenal of Rwanda and Ntaryamira Cyprian of Burundi. After Tutsis under their umbrella called the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) had killed Hutu leaders they embarked on a mission to cleanse Rwanda leadership where they killed all Hutu intellectuals and put in jail all possible Hutu intellectuals and Hutu male. Those they could not kill they sent cast them into isolated island called Ijwi on Lake Kivu. The same system of working for Tutsis is now alive in Rwanda because it is a replica of what happened around 500 years ago when the Tutsis again took over power by killing the Hutu kings. Today Tutsis under Paul Kagame killed anyone who tried to challenge their market product which is the Rwandan genocide that they now have marketed around the world as the Tutsi genocide in order to get social, political, economic, and psychological support in order for them to continue ruling Rwanda and yet they are only 14% of the population whereas Hutus are over 85% of the entire Rwanda population.
THE RWANDAN AGENTS OF PASSION AND THE EXPANSION OF THE TUTSI EMPIRE
As it was the case in early 1000 AD in Rwanda when Tutsis were welcomed by the Bantu people but later turned against them it is the same scenario happening in the 21st Century in the region of the Great Lakes region. Tutsis used their women to overthrow the Hutu kingdoms in the region still they believe they can achieve the same goal in the Great Lakes region today. A good example is how the Museveni’s have conquered the people of Uganda for over 30 years and still Baganda people cannot see that. Museveni and his Banyankole people have used their women to rule over Uganda and lead all strong political institutions in Uganda without any challenge at all.
For the RPF to take over power in Rwanda, many Hutus who were in leadership in Rwanda had married to Tutsi women or had Tutsi concubines and gave them nice positions in the country's administration. A good example is that the Rwandan chairman of the Habyarimana's political party MRND Mr. Ngirumpatse Matayo had many Tutsi concubines including the current Rwandan first lady Jeanette Kagame who had a father who was a business confident of Mr. Ngirumpatse Matayo. Col. Nsekarize Aloys who was one of the kingpin during the regime of President Habyarimana Juvenal had several wives from the Tutsi tribes. Many Hutu intelligent and powerful people had Tutsi women who did not love them but loved what they got from them. This include the former Rwandan president Bizimungu Pasteri who was a cousin to President Habyariama and decided to betray him and had him killed in order to take over from him. The President of Habyarimanas political party its youth wing Mr. Kajuga was a Tutsi who lead the Interahamwe during the Rwandan genocide. The first Rwandan president Gregory Kayibandas wife was a Tutsis. This is why the Habyarimana's regime and Hutu regimes crambled down with heavy fall and has never recovered since because of these Rwandan Passion Agents.
Paul Kagame and his RPF group understand and know this very well. They knew well that for their ancestors to come to power in Rwanda from Sudan and rule over Hutus for over 400 years it was thanks to their women who are the Passion Agents. Still RPF, Kagame, and Museveni understand very well that for them to establish a Hima-Tutsi Empire in the region their women must play a crucial role. This is one of the reasons that both Museveni and Kagame championed for the Partnership of the willing that brought together Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda to establish a free movement in the region in order to facilitate Tutsi women to move around the region, especially in Kenya. This is because Kenya is key to the establishment of the Hima-Tutsi Empire. Those who know Kenya say that Rwandan women have been flooding the Kenyan prostitution market leaving Kenyan women broke as most Kenyan men prefer Rwandan women over their Kenyan ladies. However, this passion is mined with Kigali intelligence. They don’t give you passion only but they also suck crucial information out of you.
As the region of East and Central African region continue to work together toward the issue of integration politicians should understand the history of the people of Rwanda in order not to fall into the trap of Rwanda. Kagame never does a free transaction. He always looks for ways to expand his rule and reach in order to make the Hima-Tutsi Empire not only a dream but a reality.